The machine-words Module#
This document describes a number of extensions to the Dylan language which are
available from the dylan
library.
Throughout this document, arguments are instances of the class specified
by the argument name, unless otherwise noted. Thus, the arguments
machine-word and integer are instances of <machine-word>
and
<integer>
, respectively.
The class <machine-word>
is a sealed subclass of <object>
,
defined in the dylan
library, representing a limited range of integral
values. The representation used has the natural size suggested by the
implementation architecture. When running a 32 bit OS, a
<machine-word>
is 32 bits wide. When running a 64 bit OS, then
<machine-word>
is 64 bits wide. <machine-word>
is disjoint
from all other classes specified by the Dylan language.
The ==
function compares instances of <machine-word>
by value.
Useful functions from the Dylan module#
This section describes additional methods defined in the dylan
module that
pertain to <machine-word>
. Note that this section only describes
extensions to the dylan
library; for complete descriptions, you should also
refer to the Dylan Reference Manual.
Note that the common-dylan
library also has these extensions because it
uses the dylan
library.
- odd? Function#
- Signature:
odd? m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<boolean>
- even? Function#
- Signature:
even? m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<boolean>
- zero? Function#
- Signature:
zero? m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<boolean>
Note
Cannot be used as the name of a result. It is not a valid Dylan name.
- positive? Function#
- Signature:
positive? m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<boolean>
- negative? Function#
- Signature:
negative? m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<boolean>
These functions return a result based on interpreting m
as a signed
integer value.
- \= Function#
- Signature:
= m1 m2 => r
- Signature:
= i1 m2 => r
- Signature:
= m1 i2 => r
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
i1 – An instance of
<abstract-integer>
i2 – An instance of
<abstract-integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
The comparison is performed with the
<machine-word>
arguments interpreted as signed integer values.
- < Function#
- Signature:
< m1 m2 => r
- Signature:
< i1 m2 => r
- Signature:
< m1 i2 => r
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
i1 – An instance of
<abstract-integer>
i2 – An instance of
<abstract-integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
The comparison is performed with the
<machine-word>
arguments interpreted as signed integer values.
- as Function#
- Signature:
as t == <integer> m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<integer>
- Discussion:
The result is an
<integer>
with the same value asm
when interpreted as a signed integer value. An error is signaled if the value ofm
cannot be represented as an instance of<integer>
.
- as Function
- Signature:
as t == <abstract-integer> m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<abstract-integer>
- Discussion:
The result is an
<abstract-integer>
with the same value asm
when interpreted as a signed integer value.(The uses for an instance of
<abstract-integer>
that is not also an instance of<integer>
are rather limited without the Generic-Arithmetic library.)
- as Function
- Signature:
as t == <machine-word> i => r
- Parameters:
i – An instance of
<abstract-integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
If the value of
i
is outside the machine word range, then the result consists of the low$machine-word-size
bits of the twos-complement representation ofi
. If any of the discarded bits differ from the sign ofi
, then an error is signaled.
- limited Function#
- Signature:
limited t == <machine-word> #key signed? min max => r
- Parameters:
min (#key) – An instance of
<machine-word>
max (#key) – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<type>
- Discussion:
If the
signed?
argument is true (the default) then themin
andmax
arguments are interpreted as signed values. Whensigned?
is false, themin
andmax
arguments are interpreted as unsigned values. The default value for each of min and max depends on the value ofsigned?
. The defaults are taken from the corresponding minimum and maximum machine word values (see$maximum-signed-machine-word
and related constants below).For convenience, the values of
min
and/ormax
may also be instances of<abstract-integer>
, in which case they are coerced to instances of<machine-word>
as if by usingas
.
The machine-words Module#
This section contains a reference entry for each item exported from the
machine-words
module, which is exported by the common-dylan
library.
- <machine-word> Sealed Class#
- Summary:
The class of objects that can represent a limited range of integral values that are a natural fit for the current machine architecture.
- Superclasses:
- Discussion:
The class
<machine-word>
represents a limited range of integral values. The representation used has the natural size suggested by the implementation architecture. The class<machine-word>
is disjoint from all other classes specified by the Dylan language.- Operations:
The
<machine-word>
class provides the operations described below and in Useful functions from the Dylan module.
Variables#
The following variables are exported from the machine-words
module.
- $machine-word-size Constant#
- Type:
- Discussion:
The number of bits in the representation of a
<machine-word>
.
- $maximum-signed-machine-word Constant#
- Type:
- Discussion:
The largest machine word, when interpreted as a signed integer value.
- $minimum-signed-machine-word Constant#
- Type:
- Discussion:
The smallest machine word, when interpreted as a signed integer value.
- $maximum-unsigned-machine-word Constant#
- Type:
- Discussion:
The largest machine word, when interpreted as an unsigned integer value.
- $minimum-unsigned-machine-word Constant#
- Type:
- Discussion:
The smallest machine word, when interpreted as an unsigned integer value.
- as-unsigned Function#
- Signature:
as-unsigned t m => result
- Parameters:
t – A type
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
result – An instance of
t
- Discussion:
The value of
m
is interpreted as an unsigned value and converted to an instance of<abstract-integer>
, then the result of that conversion is converted to typet
usingas
.
Basic and signed single word operations#
For all of the following functions, all arguments that are specified as being
specialized to <machine-word>
accept an instance of
<abstract-integer>
, which is then coerced to a <machine-word>
before performing the operation.
- %logior Function#
- Signature:
%logior #rest machine-words => r
- Parameters:
machine-words (#rest) – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- %logxor Function#
- Signature:
%logxor #rest machine-words => r
- Parameters:
machine-words (#rest) – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- %logand Function#
- Signature:
%logand #rest machine-words => r
- Parameters:
machine-words (#rest) – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- %lognot Function#
- Signature:
%lognot m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
These four functions have the same semantics as logior
, logxor
,
logand
, and lognot
in the dylan
library, but they operate on
<machine-word>
instead of <integer>
.
- %logbit? Function#
- Signature:
%logbit? index m => set?
- Parameters:
index – An instance of
<integer>
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
set? – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
Returns true iff the indexed bit (zero based, counting from the least significant bit) of
m
is set. An error is signaled unless0 <= index < $machine-word-size
.
- %count-low-zeros Function#
- Signature:
%count-low-zeros m => c
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
c – An instance of
<integer>
- Discussion:
Returns the number of consecutive zero bits in
m
counting from the least significant bit.
Note
This is the position of the least significant non-zero bit in
m
. So if i
is the result, then %logbit?(i, m)
is true, and for
all values of j
such that 0 <= j < i
, %logbit?(j, m)
is false.
- %count-high-zeros Function#
- Signature:
%count-high-zeros m => c
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
c – An instance of
<integer>
- Discussion:
Returns the number of consecutive zero bits in
m
counting from the most significant bit.
Note
The position of the most significant non-zero bit in m
can be
computed by subtracting this result from $machine-word-size - 1
. So
if i
is the result and p = ($machine-word-size - i - 1)
, then
%logbit?(p, m)
is true, and for all values of j
such that p < j <
$machine-word-size*, *%logbit?(j, m)
is false.
- %count-ones Function#
- Signature:
%count-ones m => c
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
.c – An instance of
<integer>
.
- Discussion:
Returns the number of bits in m which have been set to 1.
- %+ Function#
- Signature:
%+ m1 m2 => sum overflow?
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
sum – An instance of
<machine-word>
overflow? – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
Signed addition.
- %- Function#
- Signature:
%- m1 m2 => difference overflow?
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
difference – An instance of
<machine-word>
overflow? – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
Signed subtraction.
- %\* Function#
- Signature:
%* m1 m2 => low high overflow?
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
low – An instance of
<machine-word>
high – An instance of
<machine-word>
overflow? – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
Signed multiplication. The value of
overflow?
is false iff thehigh
word result is a sign extension of thelow
word result.
- %floor/ Function#
- Signature:
%floor/ dividend divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- %ceiling/ Function#
- Signature:
%ceiling/ dividend divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- %round/ Function#
- Signature:
%round/ dividend divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- %truncate/ Function#
- Signature:
%truncate/ dividend divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- %divide Function#
- Signature:
%divide/ dividend divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
The functions %divide
, %floor/
, %ceiling/
,
%round/
, and %truncate/
all perform signed division of the
dividend by the divisor, returning a quotient and remainder such that:
quotient * divisor + remainder = dividend
When the division is inexact (in other words, when the remainder is not zero), the kind of rounding depends on the operation:
%floor/
The quotient is rounded toward negative infinity.%ceiling/
The quotient is rounded toward positive infinity.%round/
The quotient is rounded toward the nearest integer. If the mathematical quotient is exactly halfway between two integers, then the resulting quotient is rounded to the nearest even integer.%truncate/
The quotient is rounded toward zero.%divide
If both operands are non-negative, then the quotient is rounded toward zero. If either operand is negative, then the direction of rounding is unspecified, as is the sign of the remainder.
For all of these functions, an error is signaled if the value of the divisor is zero or if the correct value for the quotient exceeds the machine word range.
- %negative Function#
- Signature:
%negative m => r overflow?
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
overflow? – An instance of
<boolean>
- %abs Function#
- Signature:
%abs m => r overflow?
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
overflow? – An instance of
<boolean>
- %shift-left Function#
- Signature:
%shift-left m count => low high overflow?
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
low – An instance of
<machine-word>
high – An instance of
<machine-word>
overflow? – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
Arithmetic left shift of
m
by count. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
. The value ofoverflow?
is false iff the high word result is a sign extension of the low word result.
- %shift-right Function#
- Signature:
%shift-right m count => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Arithmetic right shift of
m
bycount
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
.
Overflow signaling operations#
For all of the following functions, all arguments that are specified as being
specialized to <machine-word>
accept an instance of
<abstract-integer>
, which is then coerced to a <machine-word>
before performing the operation.
- so%+ Function#
- Signature:
so%+ m1 m2 => sum
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
sum – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Signed addition. An error is signaled on overflow.
- so%- Function#
- Signature:
so%- m1 m2 => difference
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
difference – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Signed subtraction. An error is signaled on overflow.
- so%\* Function#
- Signature:
so%* m1 m2 => product
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
product – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Signed multiplication. An error is signaled on overflow.
- so%negative Function#
- Signature:
so%negative m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Negation. An error is signaled on overflow.
- so%abs Function#
- Signature:
so%abs m => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Absolute value. An error is signaled on overflow.
- so%shift-left Function#
- Signature:
so%shift-left m count => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Arithmetic left shift of
m
bycount
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
. An error is signaled on overflow.
Signed double word operations#
For all of the following functions, all arguments that are specified as being
specialized to <machine-word>
accept an instance of
<abstract-integer>
, which is then coerced to a <machine-word>
before performing the operation.
- d%floor/ Function#
- Signature:
d%floor/ dividend-low dividend-high divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend-low – An instance of
<machine-word>
dividend-high – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- d%ceiling/ Function#
- Signature:
d%ceiling/ dividend-low dividend-high divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend-low – An instance of
<machine-word>
dividend-high – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- d%round/ Function#
- Signature:
d%round/ dividend-low dividend-high divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend-low – An instance of
<machine-word>
dividend-high – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- d%truncate/ Function#
- Signature:
d%truncate/ dividend-low dividend-high divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend-low – An instance of
<machine-word>
dividend-high – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- d%divide Function#
- Signature:
d%divide dividend-low dividend-high divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend-low – An instance of
<machine-word>
dividend-high – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
The functions d%divide
, d%floor/
, d%ceiling/
,
d%round/
, and d%truncate/
all perform signed division of the
double word dividend by the divisor, returning a quotient and remainder such
that
quotient * divisor + remainder = dividend
When the division is inexact (in other words, when the remainder is not zero), the kind of rounding depends on the operation:
d%floor/
The quotient is rounded toward negative infinity.d%ceiling/
The quotient is rounded toward positive infinity.d%round/
The quotient is rounded toward the nearest integer. If the mathematical quotient is exactly halfway between two integers then the resulting quotient is rounded to the nearest even integer.d%truncate/
The quotient is rounded toward zero.d%divide
If both operands are non-negative, then the quotient is rounded toward zero. If either operand is negative, then the direction of rounding is unspecified, as is the sign of the remainder.
For all of these functions, an error is signaled if the value of the divisor is zero or if the correct value for the quotient exceeds the machine word range.
Unsigned single word operations#
For all of the following functions, all arguments that are specified as being
specialized to <machine-word>
accept an instance of
<abstract-integer>
, which is then coerced to a <machine-word>
before performing the operation.
- u%+ Function#
- Signature:
u%+ m1 m2 => sum carry
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
sum – An instance of
<machine-word>
carry – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Unsigned addition. The value represented by
carry
is either 0 or 1.
- u%- Function#
- Signature:
u%- m1 m2 => sum borrow
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
sum – An instance of
<machine-word>
borrow – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Unsigned subtraction. The value represented by
borrow
is either 0 or 1.
- u%\* Function#
- Signature:
u%* m1 m2 => low high
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
low – An instance of
<machine-word>
high – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Unsigned multiplication.
- u%divide Function#
- Signature:
u%divide dividend divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Performs unsigned division of the dividend by the divisor, returning a quotient and remainder such that
quotient * divisor + remainder = dividend
An error is signaled if the value of the
divisor
is zero.
- u%rotate-left Function#
- Signature:
u%rotate-left m count => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Logical left rotation of
m
bycount
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
.
- u%rotate-right Function#
- Signature:
u%rotate-right m count => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Logical right rotation of
m
bycount
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
.
- u%shift-left Function#
- Signature:
u%shift-left m count => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Logical left shift of
m
bycount
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
.
- u%shift-right Function#
- Signature:
u%shift-right m count => r
- Parameters:
m – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
r – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Logical right shift of
m
bycount
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
.
- u%< Function#
- Signature:
u%< m1 m2 => smaller?
- Parameters:
m1 – An instance of
<machine-word>
m2 – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
smaller? – An instance of
<boolean>
- Discussion:
Unsigned comparison.
Unsigned double word operations#
For all of the following functions, all arguments that are specified as being
specialized to <machine-word>
accept an instance of
<abstract-integer>
, which is then coerced to a <machine-word>
before performing the operation.
- ud%divide Function#
- Signature:
ud%divide dividend-low dividend-high divisor => quotient remainder
- Parameters:
dividend-low – An instance of
<machine-word>
dividend-high – An instance of
<machine-word>
divisor – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Values:
quotient – An instance of
<machine-word>
remainder – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Performs unsigned division of the double word dividend by the
divisor
, returning aquotient
andremainder
such that(quotient * divisor + remainder = dividend)
An error is signaled if the value of the
divisor
is zero or if the correct value for thequotient
exceeds the machine word range.
- ud%shift-left Function#
- Signature:
ud%shift-left low high count => low high
- Parameters:
low – An instance of
<machine-word>
high – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
low – An instance of
<machine-word>
high – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Logical left shift by
count
of the double word value represented bylow
andhigh
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
.
- ud%shift-right Function#
- Signature:
ud%shift-right low high count => low high
- Parameters:
low – An instance of
<machine-word>
high – An instance of
<machine-word>
count – An instance of
<integer>
- Values:
low – An instance of
<machine-word>
high – An instance of
<machine-word>
- Discussion:
Logical right shift by
count
of the double word value represented bylow
andhigh
. An error is signaled unless0 <= count < $machine-word-size
.