A Concrete Example#

In order to get a feel for using Melange, it is probably best to start with a concrete example. This section contains a complete program which will use native C libraries to list the contents of some directories. For now, you should simply skim this example to get a general overview of Melange’s capabilities. These will be described in more detail in later sections.

We will first begin with an “interface file” which contains a mixture of basic Dylan code and define interface forms which will be processed by Melange. We will name this file dirent.intr.

module: Junk
synopsis: A poor imitation of "ls"

define library junk
  use dylan;
  use streams;
end library junk;

define module junk
  use dylan;
  use extensions;
  use extern;
  use streams;
  use standard-io;
end module junk;

define interface
  // This clause is more complex than it needs to be, but it does
  // demonstrate a lot of Melange's features.
  #include "/usr/include/sys/dirent.h",
    equate: {"char /* Any C declaration is legal */ *" => <c-string>},
    map: {"char *" => <byte-string>},
    // The two functions require callbacks, which we don't support.
    exclude: {"scandir", "alphasort", "struct _dirdesc"},
    seal-functions: open,
    read-only: #t,
    name-mapper: minimal-name-mapping;
  function "opendir", map-argument: {#x1 => <string>};
  function "telldir" => tell, map-result: <integer>;
  struct "struct dirent",
    prefix: "dt-",
    exclude: {"d_namlen", "d_reclen"};
end interface;

define method main (program, #rest args)
  for (arg in args)
    let dir = opendir(arg);
    for (entry = readdir(dir) then readdir(dir),
         until entry = $null-pointer)
      write-line(entry.dt-d-name, *standard-output*);
    end for;
  end for;
end method main;

We will then process this file through Melange to produce a file of pure Dylan code. Melange can be invoked like this:

melange dirent.intr dirent.dylan

This command will process dirent.intr and write a file named dirent.dylan.

You can compile dirent.dylan normally within a Dylan library.