An exception is an unexpected event that occurs during program execution (as opposed to problems detected during program compilation). One common type of exception is a violation of the contract of a function, such as attempting to divide a number by zero. Another example is an attempt to access an uninitialized slot, or certain cases of an attempt to violate the type constraint on a slot or variable (those that cannot be detected at compile time). Dylan detects all these exceptions itself. Sometimes, an application detects a violation of a contract that it defines. For example, in Virtual slots, we defined methods that detected attempts to specify a longitude direction of anything other than east or west. (In Enumerations we changed the application such that this particular application-detected exception was transformed into one that is detected by Dylan.)
When an unusual event occurs in an application, there are many options available for responding to that event. The application can try to handle the situation in its own particular way, or it can use the exception protocol defined by Dylan. In this chapter, we explore several approaches to providing an exception protocol between parts of an application.
An informal exception protocol¶
Our goal is to modify the method that adds a <time-offset> instance to a <time-of-day> instance. We redefine that method to detect overflow beyond the 24-hour period covered by a time of day, and to take special action in that case. In this section, we show a simple way to indicate and handle exceptions, without using the Dylan exception protocol. We then discuss the problems with this informal approach. In A simple Dylan exception protocol, we achieve the same goal using Dylan conditions, and discuss the advantages of that approach.
The + method using informal exceptions¶
First, we redefine the method for adding <time-offset> and <time-of-day> (this method was last defined in The time implementation file). The method now returns an error string in the event that the computed sum is beyond the permitted 24-hour range:
define method \+ (offset :: <time-offset>, time-of-day :: <time-of-day>) => (sum :: type-union(<time-of-day>, <string>)) let sum = make(<time-of-day>, total-seconds: offset.total-seconds + time-of-day.total-seconds); if (sum >= $midnight & sum < $tomorrow) sum; else "time boundary violated"; end if; end method \+;
We have altered the + method in two important ways. First, we have modified the original values declaration, (sum :: <time-of-day>), to allow the return of either a <time-of-day> instance or a string describing a problem. Second, we have added code that checks the computed time of day, and returns an error string if the sum is out of bounds.
To illustrate further how the informal exceptions work, we define a method that calls the + method defined in this section. We define a method, correct-arrival-time, that adds predicted weather and traffic delays to an arrival time; and we define say-corrected-time, which calls correct-arrival-time and displays the results:
define method correct-arrival-time (arrival-time :: <time-of-day>, weather-delay :: <time-offset>, traffic-delay :: <time-offset>) => (sum :: type-union(<time-of-day>, <string>)) let sum1 = weather-delay + arrival-time; // Check whether the result of + was a string representing an error if (instance?(sum1, <string>)) sum1; else // Otherwise, if there is no error, compute the second part of the sum traffic-delay + sum1; end if; end method correct-arrival-time; define constant $no-time = make(<time-offset>, total-seconds: 0); define method say-corrected-time (arrival-time :: <time-of-day>, #key weather-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time, traffic-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time) => () let result = correct-arrival-time(arrival-time, weather-delay, traffic-delay); // Check whether the result of + was a string representing an error if (instance?(result, <string>)) format-out("Error during time correction: %s", result); else // Otherwise, if there is no error, display the result say(result); end if; end method say-corrected-time;
Problems with the informal exception protocol¶
There are several significant problems with the approach used in The + method using informal exceptions:
- As we saw in the correct-arrival-time method, most callers of the + function must check the type of the value returned. This type checking breaks up the normal flow of control, and gives as much weight to the unusual case (the exception) as it does to the usual case. If a caller fails to check the return value to see whether that value is a string, then a different error will occur later in the program (such as adding a string and time together), when it might be hard to trace back the problem to the original point of failure. Note that both direct callers of + (correct-arrival-time) and indirect callers of + (say-corrected-time) must understand and use this error protocol correctly.
- For other methods that might return any object (including strings, for example), an additional return value would have to be used to indicate that an exception occurred. It would be easy to forget to check the extra return value and such failure could easily go undetected, causing unpredictable program behavior. If the method is being added to a generic function in another library, it might be impossible to add a second return value indicating failure, because the generic function might limit the number of return values.
- A casual reader of the code could become easily confused about this ad hoc error protocol. Someone might inadvertently write code that did not obey this ad hoc protocol. Also, if all programmers use their own error protocols, it will be hard to remember which convention to obey at the call site; programmers will have to check the convention in the source code or programmer documentation.
- In this example, the ability to restrict the return value to only <time-of-day> is lost. This loss might prevent compile-time error checking that could catch errors that would be difficult or inconvenient to catch at run time. It might also prevent the compiler from optimizing code that uses the results of this function, thus decreasing performance of the application.
- We are limited in how we can respond to the error. The context in which the error was detected has been lost. There is no state we can examine to gather more details about the error, and to determine why the error occurred. We also cannot correct whatever caused the problem, then continue from the point where the error occurred.
A simple Dylan exception protocol¶
In Sections Signaling conditions through Continuation from errors, we show how to modify the three methods in The + method using informal exceptions to use the basic tools that Dylan provides for indicating and responding to exceptional situations.
Dylan provides a structured mechanism for indicating that an unusual event or exceptional situation has occurred during the execution of a program. Using this mechanism is called signaling a condition. A condition is an instance of the <condition> class, which represents a problem or unusual situation encountered during program execution.
To signal a condition, we need to take these steps:
- Define a condition class, which must be a subclass of <condition>. The condition class should have slots that are appropriate for the application. In this example, we define a condition class named <time-error> to be a direct subclass of <error>. Note that <error> is a subclass of <condition>. We defined <time-error> to inherit from <error>, because in case our application does not handle the exception, we want Dylan always to take some action, such as entering a debugger. If <time-error> inherited from <condition> and the application failed to handle the exception, then the exception might simply be ignored.
- Modify the functions that might detect the exception. These functions must make an instance of the condition class, and must use an appropriate Dylan function to initiate the signaling process. In this example, we redefine the + method to signal the condition with the error function.
In the following code, we define a condition named <time-error> to represent any kind of time error, and we define a condition named <time-boundary-error> to represent violations of time-of-day bounds.
define abstract class <time-error> (<error>) constant slot invalid-time :: <time>, required-init-keyword: invalid-time:; end class <time-error>; define method say (condition :: <time-error>) => () format-out("The time "); say(condition.invalid-time); format-out(" is invalid."); end method say; define class <time-boundary-error> (<time-error>) // Inclusive bound constant slot min-valid-time :: <time>, required-init-keyword: min-time:; // Exclusive bound constant slot valid-time-limit :: <time>, required-init-keyword: time-limit:; end class <time-boundary-error>; define method say (condition :: <time-boundary-error>) => () next-method(); format-out("\nIt must not be less than "); say(condition.min-valid-time); format-out(" and must be less than "); say(condition.valid-time-limit); format-out("."); end method say;
We redefine the + method to signal the <time-boundary-error> condition (instead of returning an error string) to indicate that this problem has occurred:
define method \+ (offset :: <time-offset>, time-of-day :: <time-of-day>) => (sum :: <time-of-day>) let sum = make(<time-of-day>, total-seconds: offset.total-seconds + time-of-day.total-seconds); if (sum >= $midnight & sum < $tomorrow) sum; else error(make(<time-boundary-error>, invalid-time: sum, min-time: $midnight, time-limit: $tomorrow)); end if; end method \+;
We create the condition with make, just as we create instances of other classes. We call the error function to signal the condition. The error function is guaranteed never to return to its caller.
Now we can specify an exact return value for the + method, because we are no longer returning an error string to indicate a problem with the addition.
In previous chapters (for example, in Method for adding other kinds of times), we called the error function with a string. Given a string as its first argument, the error function creates a general-purpose condition named <simple-error> and stores its arguments in the condition instance. In the preceding example, however, we created an instance of a condition that is customized for our program (<time-boundary-error>), and then supplied that condition to the error function. This approach provides information that is more readily accessible to the code that will handle the condition. Conditions, like any other Dylan class, can use inheritance, and can participate in generic function dispatch. For example, we define say methods for our errors, so that our handlers can provide a reasonable error message to the user. (Unfortunately, Dylan debuggers do not yet have a standard way to know about our say generic function. We expect that Dylan will eventually support such a mechanism.)
Supplying a specific condition to the error function brings the full power of Dylan’s object-oriented programming capabilities to the task of signaling and handling exceptional situations.
Once the error function receives a condition instance, or makes an instance of <simple-error> itself, Dylan begins a process of attempting to resolve the situation represented by the condition. We present the details of condition resolution in the next section.
Simple condition handling¶
A handler can potentially resolve an exceptional situation, although a handler can decline to resolve a particular exception. If an application provides no handlers, then the generic function default-handler is called on the condition. There is a method on <condition> that just returns false, and there is a method on <serious-condition> (a superclass of <error>) that causes some kind of implementation-specific response to be invoked. Most development environments provide a debugger that deals with any serious conditions not handled by the application. Typically, the debugger describes the serious condition being signaled, and might provide any number of options for recovery (or might provide no recovery options). In a sense, the debugger is the handler of final resort.
In the following example, we establish a handler for the condition that we want to resolve, before calling the code that might signal that condition. We redefine the correct-arrival-time and say-corrected-time methods to take advantage of the Dylan exception protocol.
define method correct-arrival-time (arrival-time :: <time-of-day>, weather-delay :: <time-offset>, traffic-delay :: <time-offset>) => (sum :: <time-of-day>) traffic-delay + (weather-delay + arrival-time); end method correct-arrival-time; define method say-corrected-time (arrival-time :: <time-of-day>, #key weather-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time, traffic-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time) => () block () say(correct-arrival-time(arrival-time, weather-delay, traffic-delay)); // We establish the handler in the following two lines exception (condition :: <time-error>) say(condition); end block; end method say-corrected-time;
The exception clause of block establishes a handler for a condition, and all that condition’s subclasses, for any code in the block body, and for any code called by the block body. We say that the handler is established within the dynamic scope of the block body. When an exception is signaled, Dylan starts a search to find the nearest handler available that matches the condition signaled, and that accepts the exception. The nearest handler is the one that was most recently established in the dynamic scope of the signaler. The handler matches the condition if the class associated with the handler (the handler class) is the same as the condition, or if the handler class is a superclass of the condition. You can associate a test with the handler so that the handler can selectively accept the condition. By default, a matching handler always accepts. If a handler established by the exception clause of block matches and accepts, then a nonlocal exit from the signaler occurs, with execution continuing in the body of the exception clause, which is executed in the context of the very beginning of the block. All the locals defined by the block are gone, but the exit procedure (if there is one) is still available. If there is relevant local state, it may be captured in slots of the condition prior to signaling of the condition. The code within the exception clause body is executed, and the value of the last statement in that body is then returned as the value of the block.
In this example, the + method (called by correct-arrival-time) may signal a <time-boundary-error> condition using the error function during the execution of say-corrected-time. If this error is signaled, then the handler established by the block for <time-error> will match the <time-boundary-error> condition. This exception clause will always accept the condition, so a nonlocal exit will occur, and will terminate execution of the error function, the + method, and the correct-arrival-time method. Within the context of the beginning of the block, the variable condition is bound to the condition instance being signaled (the instance supplied to error; then, execution resumes with the code inside the body of the exception clause. The body calls the say generic function on the condition instance, which causes an appropriate error message (instead of the time) to be displayed to the user. Execution then continues normally after the end of the block; in this case, that results in the normal exit from the say-corrected-time method. Context transition from signaler to handler. shows the state of execution when error is called, and after the execution of the exception clause body for <time-error> begins. Context transition from signaler to handler. is a simplified diagram of the internal calling stack of a hypothetical Dylan implementation. It is similar to what a debugger might produce when asked to print a backtrace at these two points in the execution of the example. The error function called within the + method signals the <time-boundary-error> error, and the exception clause of block in the say-corrected-time method establishes the handler for that error. Once the handling of the exception is in progress, the handler selected is no longer established. If there is relevant local state, it may be captured in slots of the condition being signaled.
The advantages of this structured approach to signaling and handling conditions are significant:
- The method focuses on the normal flow of control, and the exceptional flow of control appears only where necessary. For example, the correct-arrival-time method does not need to be aware of the potential exceptions at all. The Dylan condition system makes it easier to reuse code that might not know about, or care to participate in, your application-specific exception recovery code.
- Because correct-arrival-time does not need to participate in the exception-recovery protocol, it can also have a specific return value; thus, like the + method, it might allow better compiler optimizations and better compile-time error checking.
- We allow room for expansion in the code. For example, at some point, correct-arrival-time might do more sophisticated computations with time, which might signal other kinds of time errors. As long as these new time errors inherit from <time-error>, they can be resolved by the same handler established by say-corrected-time. As the application evolves, we can build various families of error conditions, and can provide application-specific handlers that perform the correct recovery actions for those families.
- Because we are using the signaling and handling protocol defined by Dylan, casual readers of the code should be able to understand our intent.
- Because the handler has access to the condition object, the handler can perform intelligent recovery actions based on the information captured in the condition object when the exception occurred. For example, the handler may examine various slots of the condition object, and perform different actions based on information stored in those slots.
Dylan supports two models of handler execution. The exception clause of block implements the exit model. When you establish handlers by the exception clause of block, you do not have the ability to restart a computation in the context of the signaler, or in a context closer to the signaler than the handler. In Definition of a recovery protocol, we explore the calling model of handler execution, which allows you to recover from an exception without a nonlocal exit back to the point where the handler was established.
Definition of a recovery protocol¶
With the new definition of our + method on <time-offset> and <time-of-day>, if we add 5 hours to 10:00 P.M., a condition instance is signaled. The say-corrected-time method handles that condition, and prints a suitable error message. By the time the handler in say-corrected-time takes control, the addition that we were performing has been aborted. In fact, we are no longer even executing within the correct-arrival-time method. We have ceased executing there because handlers established using the exception clause of block perform nonlocal exits out of the current computation back to the block where the handler was established. Suppose that we, instead of aborting the addition, wanted to continue with the addition, perhaps modifying the value returned by the + method such that it would still be within the correct 24-hour range for <time-of-day> instances. In this section, we modify say-corrected-time to use a different technique for establishing a handler that does not abort the computation in progress, and we modify the + method for <time-offset> and <time-of-day> to offer and implement a way to modify the value returned to be a legal time of day.
First, we must find a way to execute a handler in the context of the signaler, instead of at the point where the handler was established. Then, we must find a way to activate special code in the + method to return a legal <time-of-day> instance as a way of recovering from the time-boundary exception.
- The let handler local declaration provides a way to establish a handler that will execute in the context of the signaler, just as though the handler was invoked with a normal function call by the signaler.
- The restart protocol provides a structured way for a handler to recover from the exception, and to continue with the computation in progress.
In this case, continuing with the computation means that the + method will return a legal <time-of-day> instance to correct-arrival-time, and correct-arrival-time will finish any additional processing and return normally to its caller.
To recover from an exception, we use a signaling and handling technique as similar to that we used to indicate the exception in the first place. This time, we signal a particular condition that is a subclass of <restart>, to indicate how the exception handler wishes to recover. We use a restart handler to implement the particular recovery action. You can think of a restart as a special condition that represents an opportunity to recover from an exception. Establishing a restart handler is a way to offer such an opportunity to other handlers, and to specify the implementation of the restart. Any handler, when activated, might signal a restart to request that a particular recovery action take place. Restart signaling and handling connects recovery requests with recovery actions.
For example, adding 5 hours to 10:00 P.M. is an error for <time-offset> and <time-of-day> instances. One way to recover from this error would be to wrap around the result to 3:00 A.M. Here, we define the restart class <return-modulus-restart>, which represents an offer to return from a time-of-day computation by wrapping the result:
define class <return-modulus-restart> (<restart>) end class <return-modulus-restart>;
Using the exception clause of block, we redefine the + method to establish and implement the restart handler:
define constant $seconds-per-day = $hours-per-day * $seconds-per-hour; define method \+ (offset :: <time-offset>, time-of-day :: <time-of-day>) => (sum :: <time-of-day>) let sum = make(<time-of-day>, total-seconds: offset.total-seconds + time-of-day.total-seconds); block () if (sum >= $midnight & sum < $tomorrow) sum; else error(make(<time-boundary-error>, invalid-time: sum, min-time: $midnight, time-limit: $tomorrow)); end if; // Establish restart handler exception (restart :: <return-modulus-restart>) make(<time-of-day>, total-seconds: modulo(sum.total-seconds, $seconds-per-day)); end block; end method \+;
If a handler (established with let handler) signals a <return-modulus-restart> during the handling of the <time-boundary-error> exception, then the sum will be wrapped around so that it will stay within the bounds of the time-of-day specification, and the result will be returned from the + method.
Next, we want to write a handler using let handler that will invoke the restart. However, before we invoke the restart, we want to confirm that the restart is currently established. Signaling a restart that is not currently established is an error. The available-restart method that follows returns an instance of a given restart, if that restart is currently established; otherwise, available-restart returns false:
define method available-restart (restart-class :: <class>, exception-instance :: <condition>) => (result :: false-or(<restart>)) block (return) local method check-restart (type, test, function, initargs) // Make an instance of the restart, so we can see whether it matches // our search criteria if (subtype?(type, restart-class)) let instance = apply(make, type, condition:, exception-instance, initargs | #); if (test(instance)) return(instance); end; end if; end method; // The built-in Dylan function do-handlers will call check-restart // for every handler currently established, in order (first is nearest // to the signaler) do-handlers(check-restart); #f; end block; end method available-restart;
Dylan provides the do-handlers function, which iterates over all the currently established handlers, calling its argument (a function) on all the relevant information about the handler, including all the information necessary to instantiate a restart instance for restart handlers. The check-restart local method returns from available-restart with a restart instance only when a matching restart that accepts is found. All restarts take a condition init-keyword argument, which, if supplied, should be the original exception that occurred. If the handler that created the restart provided the original exception condition as an init-keyword argument, then restart handlers can handle restart conditions for only particular exceptions. If none of the established handlers match and accept the restart that we seek, then available-restart returns false. Note that you should establish restart handlers for instantiable restart classes only, because the restart classes will be instantiated by restart-savvy handlers. If the restart classes cannot be instantiated, then the recovery process will not operate correctly.
Next, we need to define a method to be called by the exception handler to invoke the restart whether it is available. If the restart is not available, the method will call the next-handler method, which will allow another handler the opportunity to decide if it will handle the exception. In other words, if the <return-modulus-restart> restart is not established, the handler for <time-error> established by say-corrected-time will decline to handle the <time-boundary-error> condition being signaled.
define method invoke-modulus-restart-if-available (condition :: <time-error>, next-handler :: <function>) let restart = available-restart(<return-modulus-restart>, condition); if (restart) error(restart); else next-handler(); end; end method invoke-modulus-restart-if-available;
No return values are declared for invoke-modulus-restart-if-available, because we cannot be certain what next-handler might return. Our handler method must be prepared to return any number of objects of any types. Next, we establish a handler using the let handler local declaration:
define method say-corrected-time (arrival-time :: <time-of-day>, #key weather-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time, traffic-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time) => () let handler (<time-error>) = invoke-modulus-restart-if-available; say(correct-arrival-time(arrival-time, weather-delay, traffic-delay)); end method say-corrected-time;
The let handler local declaration establishes a handler for the <time-error> condition and for all that condition’s subclasses. When the error function inside the + method signals the <time-boundary-error> condition instance, Dylan conducts a search for the nearest matching handler that accepts. In this case, the nearest matching handler that accepts is the handler established by say-corrected-time. Because this handler was established by a let handler local declaration, instead of by the exception clause of block, no nonlocal exit takes place. Instead, the function specified in the let handler local declaration is invoked in the context of the signaler. The error function essentially performs a regular function call on the function associated with the nearest matching handler. The function is passed the condition instance being signaled, and the next-handler function that might be used to decline handling this condition. In our example, the invoke-modulus-restart-if-available function will be called from error. Once called, invoke-modulus-restart-if-available will first see whether the <return-modulus-restart> restart is established. If the restart is established, we will invoke it by signaling an instance of the restart. If the restart is not established, we decline to process the <time-boundary-error> condition in this handler. Assuming that no other handlers exist, the debugger will be invoked.
If the restart is signaled, a nonlocal exit to the restart exception clause in + method is initiated, which returns the sum suitably wrapped such that it lies within the 24-hour boundary.
Context transition from handler to restart handler. shows the state of execution after the handler function for <time-error> is invoked, and the state after the restart handler function for <return-modulus-restart> is invoked. As you can see, although establishing a handler with let handler can be far removed from the signaler, the handler function itself is executed in the context of the signaler.
Continuation from errors¶
The restart mechanism just described is exceedingly general, and may provide several different ways to recover from exceptional situations. Sometimes, however, there is just one main way to recover. Under certain circumstances, Dylan provides a way for handlers simply to return to their callers, allowing execution to continue after the signaler. Here, we present a simpler (but less flexible) implementation for recovering from the time-of-day overflow exception:
define method return-24-hour-modulus (condition :: <time-error>, next-handler :: <function>) => (corrected-time :: <time>) make(type-for-copy(condition.invalid-time), total-seconds: modulo(condition.invalid-time.total-seconds, $seconds-per-day)); end method return-24-hour-modulus; define method return-allowed? (condition :: <time-error>) #t; end method return-allowed?; define method return-description (condition :: <time-error>) "Returns the invalid time modulo 24 hours."; end; define method say-corrected-time (arrival-time :: <time-of-day>, #key weather-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time, traffic-delay :: <time-offset> = $no-time) => () let handler (<time-error>) = return-24-hour-modulus; say(correct-arrival-time(arrival-time, weather-delay, traffic-delay)); end method say-corrected-time; define method \+ (offset :: <time-offset>, time-of-day :: <time-of-day>) => (sum :: <time-of-day>) let sum = make(<time-of-day>, total-seconds: offset.total-seconds + time-of-day.total-seconds); block () if (sum >= $midnight & sum < $tomorrow) sum; else // If a handler returns, it must return a valid <time-offset> signal(make(<time-boundary-error>, invalid-time: sum, min-time: $midnight, time-limit: $tomorrow)); end if; end block; end method \+;
The return-allowed? and return-description generic functions are provided by Dylan. When the generic function return-allowed? returns true for a given condition, introspective handlers know that they can return successfully back to the signaler. When returning is allowed, such introspective handlers may call the return-description generic function to find out what values to return, if there are any. This description can be especially useful for interactive handlers, such as debuggers.
The return-24-hour-modulus method has been generalized compared to the exception-specific restart defined in Definition of a recovery protocol. This method may return either an instance of <time-of-day> or <time-offset>, depending on the class of time that overflowed. Thus, it could be reused for exception handling in other parts of the application.
In this implementation approach, there is an implicit contract between the signaler in the + method and any handler that matches and accepts <time-boundary-errors>. The contract is that the handler will always return a valid <time> value, or will never return at all. If any handler violates this implicit contract, then the reliability of the program will be placed at risk. It is important to document these error-handling contracts.
Note that, in the + method, we must use the signal function to signal the exception, because it is illegal for a handler to return from exceptions signaled with the error function.
Additional exception mechanisms¶
We do not cover the entire Dylan exception protocol in this book. Here, we mention briefly certain other techniques that we do not discuss further in this book:
- You can signal conditions with cerror, and break, in addition to with the error and signal functions. The cerror function establishes a simple restart, then signals an error in a manner similar to error. The break function directly invokes the debugger without signaling.
- The exception clause of block and let handler takes several options that, among other things, can facilitate restart signaling and handling.
- There are additional protocols for attaching a user interface to returning or restarting (return-query, restart-query, which could be used with handlers that act like interactive debuggers.
See The Dylan Reference Manual for more information.
Protected operations and the block construct¶
In this section, we describe how to use block to protect sections of Dylan code from unexpected nonlocal exits. Dylan provides powerful ways to execute nonlocal exits from a given execution context. An application might signal a condition that might cause a handler to execute a nonlocal exit, or an application might call an exit procedure named by the first argument to block. Sometimes, it is necessary to add behavior to the nonlocal exit, to keep the application’s execution environment in good shape.
Suppose that you want to design a class of objects that could be accessed only when a lock for that object is granted. You might use instances of such a class to avoid conflicting concurrent access in a multi-threaded implementation of Dylan, or you might use instances of such a class to represent files or other operating-system objects that might be accessed reliably by only one process at a time. Let’s assume that the <lock> class and the get-lock and release-lock functions are supplied by an external library. The get-lock function atomically obtains the lock if that lock is available; otherwise, it waits until the lock becomes free, and then obtains the lock. The release-lock function frees the lock so that some other process can acquire the lock. Given this locking library, how would we define the following?
- A class that represents a protected object
- A call-using-lock function, which acquires a lock associated with a protected object, calls an arbitrary function, and then releases the lock
We could define the class as follows:
define abstract class <protected-object> (<object>) slot object-lock :: <lock> = make(<lock>); end class <protected-object>;
Each subclass of <protected-object> would inherit an object-lock slot. The lock instance stored in this slot must be acquired prior to any operation on the protected object, and released when the operation is complete. One naive way to implement call-using-lock would be as follows:
define method call-using-lock (object :: <protected-object>, function :: <function>, #rest args) => (#rest results) get-lock(object.object-lock); apply(function, object, args); release-lock(object.object-lock); end method call-using-lock;
The approach in the preceding example has two serious problems. First, call-using-lock does not return the values returned by calling function. Second, if function executes a nonlocal exit past call-using-lock, the release-lock call will never be executed, and after that point no process will be able to acquire the lock for the protected object. Thus, subsequent attempts to use the protected object will wait forever, because the lock was not properly released. We could add a handler that would release the lock if any condition is signaled, but that might be incorrect, because certain conditions might be handled within the dynamic scope of function, and might never perform a nonlocal exit past call-using-lock. Thus, the lock might be released prematurely, possibly causing the integrity of the protected object to be violated. Also, calling an exit procedure performs a nonlocal exit without signaling a condition at all.
To solve exactly this sort of problem, Dylan provides the cleanup clause of block. Code within the body of a cleanup clause is guaranteed to be executed before the block is exited, even if it is a nonlocal exit that causes the block to terminate. The value of this block will be the result of calling function. The cleanup clause does not affect what the block returns.
define method call-using-lock (object :: <protected-object>, function :: <function>, #rest args) => (#rest results) block () get-lock(object.object-lock); apply(function, object, args); cleanup release-lock(object.object-lock); end block; end method call-using-lock;
The cleanup clause of block provides a powerful tool for ensuring the integrity of applications that use nonlocal exits.
In this chapter, we covered the following:
- We described how to define condition classes, and to signal them.
- We explored establishing simple error handlers using the exception clause of block.
- We showed how to design and implement a introspective recovery protocol using let handler, do-handler, and restarts.
- We demonstrated how a handler can simply return to the signaler with cooperation from that signaler.
- We showed how we can protect sections of code from unexpected nonlocal exits by using the cleanup clause provided by block.
You can use these techniques to control the handling of exceptional situations when they arise. By designing your condition classes carefully and handling those conditions correctly, you make your program significantly more robust, without interrupting the normal flow of control. By providing recovery protocols, you make it possible to continue cleanly after a problem has been detected. By protecting critical code against unexpected nonlocal exits, you enhance the reliability of your applications.